Mrunalini caps for Sinusitis.

Mrunalini capsules are the ultimate solution to Sinusitis problems. Sinuses are air spaces  in the skull, two frontal ones located  in the forehead above the eyes and 2  maxillary sinuses, one inside each cheek bone, all lined by mucous membranes. When these sinuses get inflamed due to allergic reactions and or fungal or bacterial infections, Sinusitis (sinus infection or rhinosinusitis) results. Due to sinusitis, facial pain/pressure, headache, nasal congestion, foul smelling nasal discharge (usually green in color and may contain pus  and/or blood), cough,  fever and bad breath results.  In cases  of coughing, it is often worse at night.

Symptoms of sinusitis include, redness in the nose, swelling of the nasal tissues, running nose, greenish  nasal discharge, nasal congestion, tenderness of the face (particularly under the eyes or at the bridge of the nose), headache, toothache which intensifies when the  head is tilted forward, coughing,  fever and bad breath.

Prolonged  sinusitis  may lead to infection of eye socket ( may result in the loss of sight and severe illness), infection of the bones (osteomyelitis) of the forehead and other facial bones,  infection of the brain by the invasion of anaerobic bacteria through the bones or blood vessels,  abscesses, meningitis and other life-threatening conditions.  Eventually the patient may experience mild personality changes, headache, altered consciousness, visual problems, seizures, coma and possibly death.

Sinusitis is treated by taking rest, drinking enough water to thin the mucous, steaming and gargling. When the bacterial infection of the sinuses are proved, they are treated with antibiotics. Because the sinuses are deep-seated in the bones, treatments may last from 3 to 28 days, which may lead to antibiotic resistance. Using decongestant nasal sprays containing oxymetazoline and antihistamines is another way of treatment. Sprays are used for 3-4 days only, because overuse of topical nasal decongestants can result in a dependent condition in which the nasal passages swell shut, called rebound phenomenon. Nasal sprays with corticosteroids also are used. For chronic or recurring sinusitis, nasal surgery is recommended though the advantages of this option are not clear.

Sinusitis is a major common health problem all over the world.  Even in advanced countries like USA it afflicts 31 million or more people.  People suffering from allergies, asthma, structural blockages in the nose or sinuses, or with weak immune systems are at greater risk of sinus diseases.

Mrunalini is a product formulated after a series of trials and errors. It contains two well-known plants of Ayurveda, “Parpatakah” (Hedyotis corymbosa) and “Sahadevi” (Vernonia cinerea) which are used for all kinds of fevers in combination with “Mari” (Piper nigrum) which is another drug used against fevers and cough. All these three plants exhibit antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties and therefore can rectify all the problems associated with sinusitis.

Plants used in Mrunalini and their properties

1. Pithpappadi (in Gujarati)

Scientific name – Hedyotis corymbosa (L).Lam (Syn. Oldenlandia corymbosa- Parpataka )

H.corymbosa (Rubiaceae)  is a  spreading, suffruticose annual, frequently found, especially during monsoon, in fields throughout India, Sri Lanka, tropical East Asia to Java and the Phillipines. The plant is an annual, varying from 7.5-38 cm. high with  numerous, slender, erect, ascending or spreading terete branches, small subsessile,  linear or linear-lanceolate leaves having a truncate interpetiolar stipule bearing  short bristles, tetramerous white  flowers borne on slender axillary solitary peduncles, pyriform capsules bearing 4 calyx teeth and pale brown and angular seeds. The whole plant is administered in the form of a decoction in remittent fever with gastric irritability and nervous depression caused by deranged bile. It is also used to treat jaundice and diseases of liver. The juice of the plant is applied to palms and soles to relieve the burning sensation during fevers. It is known to clear heat and toxins, activate blood circulation, promote dieresis and relieve stranguria (urinary obstruction). It is also known to act against tumours of the digestive tract lymphosarcoma and carcinoma of the liver and larynx. It is also active against appendicitis, hepatitis, pneumonia, cholecystesis, urinary infection, cellulites and snake bite.

The whole plant contains iridoids such as geniposide, 6α-hydroxygeniposide, scandoside methyl ester, asperulosidic acid, deacetylasperuloside, asperuloside, 10-O-benzoylscandoside methyl ester, 10-Op-hydroxybenzoylscandoside methyl ester and  (+)-lyoniresinol-3α-O-β-glucopyranoside. Other compounds reported are  rutin, oleanolic  and ursolic acids and alkaloids  biflorine and biflorone.

Parpataka  is an esteemed specific remedy for all types of fevers in India and China. The decoction is given to cure remittent fever, heat eruptions and also applied to the surface of the body. The methanolic extracts of the plant is found to be antioxidant, radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic and antibacterial. Studies have proved that this plant to be immunomodulatory and  hepatoprotective.

2. Sahadevi (Sanskrit name)

Scientific name – Vernonia cinerea Less. , (Asteraceae – Sahadevi)

An erect hispid annual with leaves variable from broadly elliptic to spathulate (margin wavy/crenate), white pinkish violet homogamous heads in lax terminal corymbose  panicles, containing disc florets, pappus of 2 whorls of white hairs and 5-angled achenes bearing appressed white hairs. Found as a weed throughout India and Africa.

The herb contains steroids such as β-amyrin, lupeol, β-sitosterol and α-spinasterol and flavonoids like apigenin , chrysoeriol , luteolin , thermopsoside , luteolin-7-O-beta-D-glucoside , quercetin, apigenin-4′-O-beta-D-glucoside and  hyperin ,

Sahadevi is a reputed drug for all types of fevers. The whole plant is febrifuge, diaphoretic and has the property of calming the mind. It is also useful in leucorrhoea, excessive bleeding, skin diseases, and conjunctivitis. Flowers are used in conjunctivitis and rheumatism. Seeds are anthelmintic and alexipharmic and for skin diseases like leucoderma and psoriasis.

3. Mari (Gujarati name)

Scientific name – Piper nigrum L. (Pepper- Piperaceae)

Indigenous to India and Indo-Malaya region but cultivated widely in the Eastern tropics, this perennial woody climber, the dried unripe fruits of which are known as black pepper, has the leaves which are simple, ovate, coriaceous and evergreen. The small flowers are borne in catkins, and the fruits are small red, one- seeded drupes, about 50 per catkin. Dried, full grown but unripe fruits constitute the black pepper of commerce. White pepper is the ripened fruit from which the outer portion of the pericarp has been removed.

Chavicine (an acid amide yielding piperine and chavicinic acid), free piperine (C17H19O3N), piperettine (C19H21O3N) and piperidine are the alkaloids contained in the fruits.

The pungency of pepper is due chiefly to chavicine (less than I%) and to a lesser extent to piperine (present in amounts 10 times more than that of chavicine) and a resin. 1- 2.5% Volatile oil occurs in the fruit, which comprises of α-, and β- pinenes,  α- phellandrene, citral, limonene, piperonal etc.  The volatile oil is restricted largely to the pericarp and the pungency to the seed. A fixed oil (<1%) and starch (50%) are also present in the fruits.

Piperine and pepper exhibit antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities  and therefore is an excellent remedy for sinusitis. Piperine and other alkaloids of Pepper are well-known bioenhancers which potentiate  the absorption and activities of other components in the drug.

Mrunalini will be highly useful for sinusitis because it:
  1. Removes nasal congestion and facial pain
  2. Stops foul smelling green nasal discharge.
  3. Stop bad breath, cough and fever.
  4. Gives immunity from cold and fever.